Isaiah 42:1-9 Sermon — “Behold God’s Servant”


Soli Deo Gloria in the Bible

In our last post, we spent some time defining the doctrine of Soli Deo Gloria as rediscovered by the Reformers.  Of course, the doctrinal formulations of even the wisest or most pious Christian must be rejected if they do not find their basis in the teachings of Scripture.  What follows is a brief survey of biblical texts which demonstrate and undergird the bold claim made by Soli Deo Gloria: that God’s foremost motivation and intention in every work is His own glory alone.

The heavens declare the glory of God,
     and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.
Day to day pours out speech,
     and night to night reveals knowledge.
                                    –Psalm 19:1-2 [1]

To begin, this well-known psalm sets forth the basic principle that God’s glory is reflected in His creation.  It is important to note that the glory on display in creation is not “creation’s glory” in the sense of belonging to or originating from it.  Says Bavinck, “In the created word there is a faint reflection [by comparison] of the inexpressible glory and majesty that God possesses….  It is not beautiful by itself but by participation in a higher, absolute beauty.”[2]  John M. Frame similarly describes the created world as “his finite glory-light.”[3]

Not to us, O LORD, not to us, but to your name give glory,
     for the sake of your steadfast love and your faithfulness!
Why should the nations say,
     “Where is their God?”
Our God is in the heavens;
     he does all that he pleases.
formattingissodifficult–Psalm 115:1-3

In this later passage, the psalmist indicates a concern that all glory be given to God, since He alone is worthy of it.  Secondly, the psalmist asserts that the Lord “does all that he pleases”—which is to say, that everything He does He is pleased to do, and nothing He is displeased to do will He do.  These two facts of God’s sole worthiness of glory and His working all things in accordance with His pleasure lay much of the foundation for the doctrine of Soli Deo Gloria, which is indeed a most natural harmony of these two facts.

“I am the LORD; that is my name;
     my glory I give to no other,
     nor my praise to carved idols.”
                                    –Isa 42:8

In this first text from Isaiah, God speaks directly to the issue of His glory and could hardly be any clearer.  It is not to be claimed by anyone but Himself.  God invokes His personal name YHWH as a means of reminding the people what glory is: a perfect emanation of His divine being.  Thus it would be perverse and unfitting for any created being—much less a false idol—to claim glory for itself.

“Bring my sons from afar
     and my daughters from the ends of the earth,
Everyone who is called by my name,
     whom I created for my glory,
     whom I formed and made.”
                                    –Isa 43:6b-7

As a development of the thought in Psalm 19 above, the Lord specifically identifies his creation of humanity as being to the end of His glory.  This naturally bears implications for man’s understanding of his identity and role in creation; those who understand that their creation was ultimately purposed for God’s glory rather than for their own pleasure will certainly live their lives differently than those who do not.  (Note, however, that the principal purpose being His glory does not preclude man’s pleasure as a proximate end, as will be discussed in the following section.)

“For my name’s sake I defer my anger,
     for the sake of my praise I restrain it for you,
     that I may not cut you off.
Behold, I have refined you, but not as silver;
     I have tried you in the furnace of affliction.
For my own sake, for my own sake, I do it,
     for how should my name be profaned?
     My glory I will not give to another.”
                                    –Isa 48:9-11

Just a few chapters later, the Lord reiterates almost verbatim his proscription of glory being given to another from chapter 42.  Additionally, this passage makes use of parallel phrasing and repetition in order to emphasize the prominence of God’s actions “for his own sake.”  Especially noteworthy is the double phrase (“for my own sake, for my own sake”), which is a typical Hebrew means of indicating special veracity, importance, or intensity of purpose.  Though it would not be incorrect for God to describe His divine refinement of the people as being intended for their benefit or occasioned out of His covenant love for them, the emphatic insistence on His reputation, praise, and glory indicates this latter thrust of His intentions to be paramount over the former.

“Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him.  And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.  I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do.  And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed.  I have manifested your name to the people whom you gave me out of the world.”
                                                                                           –John 17:1-6

With the movement into the New Testament, God’s revelation of His self-glorification progresses through the introduction of Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, and thus the Trinitarian nature of God.  In His high priestly prayer, Christ clearly indicates a mutual glorification between Himself and the Father—a glorification which, given both the unity and the distinctiveness of the two, is simultaneously self-directed and outwardly directed.  In the words of Piper, “Since the Son is the image of God and the radiance of God and the form of God, equal with God, and indeed is God, therefore God’s delight in the Son is delight in himself.  The original, the primal, the deepest, the foundational joy of God is the joy he has in his own perfections as he sees them reflected in the glory of his Son.”[4]  Notice also that this passage strongly attests the principle of glorification as a manifestation or revelation; Christ’s work on earth was to make the Father known, and the Father’s glorification of the Son involved unveiling the splendor and fullness of Christ’s deity by the resurrection.

Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God!  How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways!
            “For who has known the mind of the Lord,
                 or who has been his counselor?”
            “Or who has given a gift to him
                 that he might be repaid?”
For from him and through him and to him are all things.  To him be glory forever.  Amen.
                                                                                       –Rom 11:33-36

As a way of concluding his extended theological treatment in the first portion of Romans, Paul’s awe at God’s incredible work of salvation gushes forth in the form of a beautiful doxology.  After extolling God’s magnificent wisdom and divine transcendence, Paul’s concluding thoughts in the passage constitute one of the strongest biblical proofs for the doctrine of Soli Deo Gloria.  The fact that all things are “from him” (as the Creator and Giver of life) and “through him” (as the sovereign Orchestrator and Provider) naturally entails that all things are also “to him”—that is, purposed ultimately for Himself, His pleasure, and His glory.  God is the most pertinent factor in the existence of creation at every point along the way, from generation to continuation to consummation.  He Himself is the center around which He has set the whole universe to revolve, and at the root of every good work in history is the sovereign self-glorifying hand of God.  It is by virtue of His goodness that the divine agenda of self-glorification prominently includes the provision of immeasurable benefits to His creatures.  In this regard, there are two additional passages worth examining.

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him.  In love he predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his glorious grace, with which he has blessed us in the Beloved….  In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will, so that we who were the first to hope in Christ might be to the praise of his glory.  In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, who is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory.
                                                                              –Eph 1:3-6, 11-14 [5]

Here, as Paul speaks in exalted language about salvation through Christ—with its past, present, and future aspects (those being election, adoption, and inheritance respectively)—he identifies the praise of God’s glory (or His “glorious grace” in the case of verse six) as the end to which all these are directed.  Certainly, the blessings of salvation are inestimably valuable as ends themselves; nevertheless, even these point beyond themselves toward the one great and ultimate end of God’s glory.  If therefore such sublime ends are yet subordinated to the glory of God, what other possible end remains to challenge its priority?

Have this attitude among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.  And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.  Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed upon him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
                                                                                            –Phil 2:5-11

This passage from Paul’s letter to the Philippians provides an opportunity to review the doctrine of Soli Deo Gloria while at the same time presenting one unforeseen twist to the divine method of self-glorification.  Once again, it could not possibly be argued that Christ’s salvific work was undertaken and accomplished apart from the purpose of blessing His elect.  However, Paul’s emphasis in the passage does not rest ultimately on the benefit of salvation for humans but on the glory of salvation to God the Father and the Son.  Shockingly, in what must be the greatest and most mysterious cosmic irony of all time, Christ “emptied himself”[6] and “humbled himself” in order to bring glory to the Father through perfect obedience as a human being.  (It should be noted that His application of divine wisdom in doing so was itself glorifying to Christ.[7])  On top of that, Paul affords his readers a vision of the end of the age, when God’s purpose of His glory will finally and completely invade the visible world.  The Father will exalt the Son in full, visible splendor; the Son will reciprocate in glorifying the Father; and all of creation will fulfill its ultimate end of acknowledging and revering the radiant glory of the Godhead.


[1] All Scripture citations taken from the ESV.

[2] Bavinck, God and Creation, 254.

[3] John M. Frame, The Doctrine of God (Phillipsburg, N.J.: P&R Publishing, 2002), 593.

[4] Piper, The Pleasures of God: Meditations on God’s Delight in Being God (Portland, Ore.: Multnomah Press, 1991), 38.

[5] Emphasis added.

[6] This is a literal translation of the Greek verb in verse seven, which ESV translates made himself nothing.

[7] John Owen, The Glory of Christ (ed. Hervey Mockford; London: Evangelical Press, 1987), 26-29.

The Joy of Righteousness

The following is a brief exposition of the biblical concept of joy, originally prepared for Dr. Julie Moeller’s ‘Biblical Ideas’ class in the spring 2011.  It may be a bit longer and more ‘academic’ than the typical blog post.  (If you are like me, then that should strike you as a good thing.)  I selected the topic because, as I have remarked elsewhere, “I am just really bad at joy most of the time.”  My study served both to inform my understanding of biblical joy and encourage my application of joy to the Christian life; it is therefore my hope that you might find similar profit in it.

[Note: Due to a quirk in the copying process from Word, the footnotes are marked with hyperlinks that lead to nowhere (though the footnotes themselves can still be found at the end of the post).  I have retained them for the simple reason that fixing them all would be super obnoxious.  My advice to you in this regard would be to deal with it. ;)]

For the average Christian, few biblical concepts are so simultaneously understood and misunderstood as joy.  Every churchgoer seems to have some idea of what joy is, but it appears that few of them are able to articulate their understanding in any comprehensive or definitive terms.  At times, the idea of joy can seem startlingly simple, and perhaps rightly so; however, other instances can lead believers to think of joy as something largely esoteric and impossible to grasp.  At the slight risk of overgeneralizing, one might venture to express the average Christian layman’s understanding of joy—or perhaps the “lowest common denominator” of joy definitions—as “a positive disposition of the mind and heart that we as Christians have, or at least can have and should have, because of Jesus.”  Outside of the proverbial armchair, of course, the question of what exactly joy is leads inevitably to the question of how the Christian is to actualize or experience joy in his everyday life:  “‘The joy of the Lord is your strength’[1]… but what about when I do not feel ‘joyful’?  ‘Rejoice in the Lord always’[2].…  So does that mean I can make myself experience joy?  That sounds great, but how do I do that?”

Granted, any earnest attempt at a summary account of the entire biblical witness regarding the idea of joy would require a much more extensive treatment than the present discussion allows, but nevertheless there is much to gain from a brief investigation into the character of biblical joy.  First, a survey of the potential sources or prompts of joy cited in the Bible points to the basic principle that true and lasting joy can only be found in and through God.  From this point, one can move into a study of man’s primary occasion for joy: his salvation at the hand of God.  However, though one’s acceptance of salvation in Christ marks the beginning of his relationship with God and even secures this relationship unto eternal life, one must yet consider the intricacies of the Christian’s experience of joy during his post-conversion sojourn in this present life.  It is here that one encounters a striking connection between joy and righteousness, as the Bible portrays obedience to God’s commands and the pursuit of conformity to his will as the constitutive means of experiencing true joy.

One of the most quickly-mentioned and oft-repeated assertions about biblical joy by those Christians who purport to take their Scriptures quite seriously is that “joy is NOT happiness.”  Such Christians might be surprised, then, to learn of the wide variety of normal “secular” objects and circumstances cited in the Bible as evoking joy.  There is nothing especially sacred or spiritual about enjoying a good wine or celebrating a birthday,[3] and one need not be a dedicated Christian to take delight in receiving a word of kindness or meeting with a loved one,[4] yet these and other common life scenarios appear alongside the Hebrew root for joy (transliterated samach) in the Old Testament.  In Acts, Paul and Barnabas describe the Lord to the people of Lystra as “he [who] provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy.”[5]  If the pagans receive joy from God, then it must be available to some degree through natural revelation and God’s common grace and given through “unspiritual” means.  Furthermore, joy is even associated in some instances with the experiences of those whose actions go against the will of God, such as Israel’s victorious enemies in Judges 16:23 and the foolish man of Proverbs 15:21.[6]  It is clear, then, that “joy” is not a sensation that is limited to explicitly spiritual contexts such as corporate worship or Bible study.

Without diminishing this fact of God’s giving “common joy” to common man through common means, one must note that the joys of creation are as insufficient and unsatisfactory as the rest of general revelation in that man was never intended to seek total fulfillment from the creation but rather from the Creator.  The Teacher of the book of Ecclesiastes relates the frustration and failure of his pursuit of joy in earthly pleasures alone:

I denied myself nothing my eyes desired;
I refused my heart no pleasure [Hebrew from samach].
My heart took delight in all my work,
and this was the reward for all my labor.
Yet when I surveyed all that my hands had done
and what I had toiled to achieve,
everything was meaningless, a chasing after the wind;
nothing was gained under the sun.[7]

Even if the created order and the hearts of men were not tainted by the blight of sin, men were never intended to seek abiding joy from material goods (though they are indeed good); by virtue of man’s design, and by virtue of the very nature of joy itself, there is only one wholly appropriate and truly satisfactory source of total joy: God, whom the psalmist calls “my joy and my delight.”[8]  It comes as no surprise that the Lord’s character of love and eternal disposition toward kindness would inspire rejoicing from those who call upon his name.

Here the issue of ultimate motivation is worth dwelling upon, for the implication of God’s being the source of joy in the “strong” or “full” sense is that one must seek him to get it, rather than simply seeking it.  The jealous God of Jacob is not interested in being anywhere but the center of man’s purposes and affections; setting one’s enjoyment as his primary goal is tantamount to idolatry, as God is consequently considered of secondary importance next to personal benefit.  Therefore joy is revealed to be a condition that cannot be attained by striving for it directly.[9]  Christ tells his disciples thus: “For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me will find it.”[10]  Additionally, Christ promises his followers that the life he provides is abundant and instructs them to “seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things [material blessings] will be given to you as well.”[11]  In a pleasant and ironic turn of providence, a proper valuation and enjoyment of God not only invites more “common joys” into the Christian’s life but also enables him to more fully enjoy them while keeping a right perspective.[12]  This perspective, as previously stated, centers always on the character of God and his divine works in history.

Of course, there is no event more central to the grand metanarrative of God, man, and indeed all creation than the redemptive work of Jesus Christ; it comes as no surprise, therefore, that the biblical idea of joy is repeatedly and intimately tied to God’s salvation of his people.  The Anchor Bible Dictionary so strongly emphasizes this point that its entry on joy begins thus: “The experience of deliverance and the anticipation of salvation provide the most significant occasions for rejoicing among the people of God in the OT.  The coming of the Messiah, who delivers his people and brings salvation, becomes the basis for rejoicing in the NT.”[13]  In fact, the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament affirms that of all the reasons for joy given throughout the Bible, “The Lord and his salvation are cited most frequently.”[14]

The rejoicing of the people of Israel in the Old Testament features both gratitude for God’s past works of redemption and anticipation of God’s future eschatological redemption.  The Israelites were given yearly feasts and festivals to commemorate several critical occasions on which the Lord had delivered them from bondage, such as the Passover and Pentecost, and occasions when he had intervened to protect them from their enemies, such as Purim.[15]  In granting them to the people, God refers to the feasts as “your times of rejoicing,” thus affirming that his salvific work on their behalf should be met with joy.  In particular, their miraculous deliverance from Egypt becomes one of the key elements of their identity as a nation as well as the primary reference point for their relationship to God throughout the Old Testament.  As the prophets begin to speak of an eschatological redemption, these feasts continue to serve as regular reminders of God’s perfect faithfulness and encourage the people to continue to trust in the Lord.

Regarding the prophecies themselves, the intensity of the joy occasioned by salvation is nothing short of remarkable.  Several passages from Isaiah well illustrate this.  First, in Isaiah 44, the prophet calls upon creation itself to rejoice for Israel:

Sing for joy, O heavens, for the LORD has done this;
shout aloud, O earth beneath.
Burst into song, you mountains,
you forests and all your trees,
for the LORD has redeemed Jacob,
he displays his glory in Israel.[16]

Later in the book, Isaiah personifies joy as if it were actively chasing down God’s people as a result of their salvation:

The ransomed of the LORD will return.
They will enter Zion with singing;
everlasting joy will crown their heads.
Gladness and joy will overtake them,
and sorrow and sighing will flee away.[17]

Finally, the Lord speaks through Isaiah about the glorious joy of his coming new creation, saying that the people themselves will be a joy:

“Behold, I will create
new heavens and a new earth.
The former things will not be remembered,
nor will they come to mind.
But be glad and rejoice forever
in what I will create,
for I will create Jerusalem to be a delight
and its people a joy.”[18]

Anchor notes that the angels’ announcement of Christ’s birth in Luke is a perfect continuation and indeed fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies of a coming joyous salvation: “‘Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of a great joy which will come to all the people; for to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord’ (Lk 2:10-11).  The appearance of the Messiah providing salvation for all humankind permeates every NT book with the mood of joy.”[19]  Christ himself promises his disciples that after his death, “I will see you again and you will rejoice, and no one will take away your joy….  Until now you have not asked for anything in my name.  Ask and you will receive, and your joy will be complete.”[20]  Later, the apostle Peter affirms that this joy extends beyond the original disciples unto all those who believe in Christ: “Though you have not seen him, you love him; and even though you do not see him now, you believe in him and are filled with an inexpressible and glorious joy, for you are receiving the goal of your faith, the salvation of your souls.”[21]

Though many would be satisfied to contain their investigation of joy to the primary point of God’s redemption, and though a more thorough examination of this point could fill many papers, the questions of practical application raised at the beginning of the discussion demand that another step be taken—a step into the ongoing daily realities of those who believe in Christ and seek to live as his disciples in light of this redemption.  While resisting the temptation to treat one’s redemption as merely a past incident and not an abiding reality, one must acknowledge that the fact of his redemption does not automatically produce joy in all circumstances (even though one may well argue that it should) and that therefore the dynamics of Christian sanctification are deserving of attention as regards their potential import for the joy of the believer.  Throughout the Scriptures there can be seen a repeated linking of joy with acting righteously through obedience to the good laws of God.

Perhaps the best place to begin a discussion of the joy of righteousness is the Psalms.  Simply put, the psalmists express such immense delight in God’s laws that readers with modern sensibilities may be initially confused or offended by the authors’ eagerness to follow rules.  First, Psalm 19:8 says,

The precepts of the LORD are right,
giving joy to the heart.
The commands of the LORD are radiant,
giving light to the eyes.[22]

Psalm 119, an enormous alphabetical acrostic poem that almost reads like a love letter to God’s commandments, says similarly,

I rejoice in following your statutes
as one rejoices in great riches….
Your statutes are my heritage forever;
they are the joy of my heart.[23]

Psalm 97 takes these sentiments and extrapolates the general principle that

Light is shed upon the righteous
and joy on the upright in heart.[24]

From these excerpts two main points can be drawn.  The first is that God’s laws are a source of joy for the believer.  While most professing Christians would be reluctant to explicitly deny this claim, it must be admitted that many Christians struggle to identify with the attitude of the psalmist(s).  To some, it seems truly foreign.  The idea that laws, or forced restrictions of any kind, would be catalysts of joy runs counter to the basic sinful instinct as well as the prevailing Western zeal for maximal freedom from rules.  However, the testimony of the passages stands, and since they are Scripture, any who fail to seriously consider the truth of this principle do so to their own detriment and hermeneutical peril.  The second main point, as seen primarily in the latter passage, is that joy is a direct result of righteousness.  While this expression is probably slightly more palatable than the first point, they are really very similar; for what is righteousness if not right action, and what is right action if not obedience to the commands of God?

A number of other passages corroborate these points drawn from the Psalms and demonstrate an intimate relationship between righteousness and joy.  Galatians 5 lists joy among the “fruit of the Spirit,” alongside such characteristics as goodness, faithfulness, and self-control.[25]  Paul writes in Philippians that he will continue his ministry with them for their “progress and joy in the faith”—progress which would undoubtedly entail growing in conformity to Christ through acts of righteousness.[26]  Ecclesiastes 2 declares that “to the man who pleases him, God gives wisdom, knowledge and happiness [from samach], but to the sinner he gives the task of gathering and storing up wealth to hand it over to the one who pleases God.”[27]  In his discussion of strong and weak faiths in Romans 14, Paul reminds his readers that “the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking, but of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit.”[28]  Jeremiah treats the words of God like a scrumptious morsel:

When your words came, I ate them;
they were my joy and my heart’s delight,
for I bear your name,
O LORD God Almighty.[29]

Proverbs 10:28 claims that “the prospect of the righteous is joy”; in contrast, “the hopes of the wicked come to nothing.”[30]  John records Jesus telling his disciples, “‘As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you.  Now remain in my love.  If you obey my commands, you will remain in my love, just as I have obeyed my Father’s commands and remain in his love.  I have told you this so that my joy may be in you and that your joy may be complete.’”[31]  James exhorts his readers to receive their trials as “pure joy,” because the perseverance they develop from them “must finish its work so that you may be mature and complete, not lacking anything.”[32]  The Apostle John writes in his third epistle that “it gave me great joy to have some brothers come and tell about your faithfulness to the truth and how you continue to walk in the truth.  I have no greater joy than to hear that my children are walking in the truth.”[33]  Finally, Paul tells the Colossians of his prayer for them: “That you may live a life worthy of the Lord and may please him in every way: bearing fruit in every good work, growing in the knowledge of God, being strengthened with all power according to his glorious might so that you may have great endurance and patience, and joyfully giving thanks to the Father….”[34]

Given the abundance and diversity of such references, it is but a small leap to propose that joy (in the “strong” sense rather than the “common” sense) is a constant companion of righteousness or, perhaps more generally, godliness.  Joy—like love, peace, goodness, etc.—is a gift of the Holy Spirit; as a divine attribute, it acts as a divine response to divine stimuli.  Wherever godliness manifests, joy results in the heart of God and in the hearts of the regenerated believers who are blessed to witness or experience it.

In conclusion, joy is the recognition of an object’s likeness to God, a recognition that characteristically stirs up delight in the Christian’s heart.  To such an extent that God’s righteousness is reflected in a given item, a circumstance, or an action, there may joy be found and experienced.  Obviously, then, God himself and our contemplation of his character and works are the most abundant sources of joy.  Unlike the partial and insufficient joys offered by the finite and fallen natural world, God’s redemptive activity in history on man’s behalf is an inexhaustible spring of joy for believers.  Having received the blessings of redemption in Christ, and keeping this redemption always before them as their most immediate and constant delight, Christians may further experience joy through the progressive alignment of their wills and actions with those of God, that their internal and external conditions may be conformed to his righteousness.  The righteous acts of an obedient life are not merely a means to joy but in fact constitute an essential part of the experience of joy, as the Holy Spirit and his regenerated vessels are naturally delighted by godliness itself.

Therefore, with caution not to oversimplify an admittedly complex issue, the Christian who is failing to experience or actualize joy in his daily living ought maybe to start as follows.  First, he must stop trying to manufacture emotions that are ultimately a flimsy substitute for joy.  Second, he must contemplate the righteousness imputed to him in Christ and the fact that the Lord God Almighty rejoices over his people.[35]  Third, he must begin to train himself to see the echoes and reflections of God’s attributes and especially his goodness in the objects, circumstances, and actions in his life.  Finally, he must commit to acting in righteousness and obedience to God—whether he initially sees the benefit or not—remembering that joy itself cannot be his ultimate goal but trusting that the promises of Scripture will be fulfilled as he “seeks first the kingdom.”

[1] Nehemiah 8:10, Holy Bible, New International Version, Biblica, 1984.
[2] Philippians 4:4.
[3] Friedman, David Noel et al, eds., “Joy,” The Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, New York: Doubleday, 1992, p. 1023.
[4] Harris, R. Laird et al, eds., “2268, simha, joy, mirth,” Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Vol. 2, Chicago: Moody Press, 1980, p. 14.
[5] Acts 14:17.
[6] Harris 15.
[7] Ecclesiastes 2:10-11.
[8] Psalm 43:4.
[9] Ryken, Leland et al, eds., “Joy,” Dictionary of Biblical Imagery, Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998, p. 465.
[10] Matthew 16:25.
[11] Matt 6:33.
[12] Elwell, Walter A., ed., “Joy,” Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996, p. 431.
[13] Friedman 1022.
[14] Harris 14.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Isaiah 44:23.
[17] Isaiah 51:11.
[18] Isaiah 65:17-18.
[19] Friedman 1023.
[20] John 16:22, 24.
[21] I Peter 1:8-9.
[22] Psalm 19:8.
[23] Psalm 119:14, 111.
[24] Psalm 97:11
[25] Galatians 5:22-23.
[26] Philippians 1:25-26.
[27] Ecclesiastes 2:26.
[28] Romans 14:17.
[29] Jeremiah 15:16.
[30] Proverbs 10:28.
[31] John 15:9:11.
[32] James 1:2, 4.
[33] III John 3-4.
[34] Colossians 1:10-12.
[35] Cf. Psalm 149:4; Luke 15:5-10; Zephaniah 3:14-17.